Report on the Rawalpindi Settlement 1865 by Major Crocroft
Summarized by Dr. Abdus Salam [email protected]
MIRASI -In all ownership of land cases the fact to be prove was—the ancestral lineage. The evidence of Mirasies is most valuable in these cases. They are class of men whose business it is to recollect pedigrees. They learn by rote the names of the ancestors of the families of their village. They can tell in the most surprizing manner, the genealogical lineage of the family without missing a name. It is almost impossible for them to invent a fictitious pedigree to favour a claimant.
The Golras are Awans. They live in a number of villages North East of Rawalpindi, between the GT Road and the Murree hills. They gave the Sikhs much trouble until Hari Sing blew some of them from guns. They levied tax on the Road South of the Margalla. The clan has 551 Souls. Their best man is Elahi Bakhsh, they have cash allowance of 1,200 Rupees. There are few men of note among the Awans, Sarfaraz Khan of Jund Boogdyal, Sumundur Khan of Sarwala, and Mehrun of Butto, and Sattar of Bhullur Jogi. The principal men of the Gujar tribe, are Chaudhari Siddiq of Musa Kudlathi.
The Syeds number 5,958, and pay Revenue of Rs. 18,909. Their most influential families are those of Bhatiote Ziarat, and Dhullian (Pindi Gheb). The Peers of Dhullian and Ziarat have disciples Trans Indus, and even in Kabul. In Tehsil Rawalpindi, the most important are those of Jhang (? Jhangi Syedan), who exercise influence over the people of the Murree hills. The Syeds of Shah Alla Ditta, and of Dheri Shahan are much respected by the people on both sides of the Margalla. In Tehsil Kahuta, the principal Syeds are those of Kallar (Syedan) . The people of Chhachh pay great reverence to the Akhund of Swat. Most of these Syeds have Jagirs and emoluments.
Among the Parachas, Muhammad Az of Haji Shah is a respectable Chaudhari. He has served as a Thaniadar, and enjoys an Enam. Boatmen of Attock, enjoy the village of Mallâh فورملی۔ملاح in perpetual rent-free grant. The Odh excavate and carry stone. The public works department is much indebted to them and their indefatigable donkeys. Many public buildings are constructed of stone.
Qanoongo قانون گو Sheikh of Chhachh have several villages in proprietary right. They are a most litigious set of men, and have contested many properties. Their chief men are Sadulla Khan and Faizulla, brothers of Samaساماں Sadulla Khan was useful at annexation, and enjoys a rent-free tenure, a pension, and an Enam. The Qanoongoes furnished a great number of writers to the Courts.
The western part of District is peopled by Pathan, Khattars, Jodrahs & Ghebas. Pathans occupy Chhachh, Burhan, and Makhad. Their ancestors came into the district with Mehmood Ghaznavi. Pathan have several Sub-divisions, the Sirkani, Matthani, Vurdug, and Ghorghusht in Chhachh, the Alizai in Burhan, and the Saghri in Makhad. The Pathans of Chhachh and Burhan own a considerable number of villages. The principal men are Lateef Khan Omarzai of Mullik-mala of the Sirkanee family; Meer Alam Khan of Ghorghushti; Nadir Khan of Sirwana, and Bostan Khan, Vurdug, of Nurtopa. Sher Muhammad Khan Alizai, and Feroz Khan Alizai are the chief men of Burhan.Ghulam Muhammad Khan Saghri is the chief of Makhad. He enjoys a Chuharoom of Rs. 998 in this District, besides emoluments in the Kohat District. The Pathans number altogether 5,200 Souls & pay Rs. 68,251 to Government yearly. They own 56 villages in Chhachh, 9 villages in Burhan, and 7 villages in Makhad. Malik Feroz Awan of Chhachh performed excellent services under Major Nicholson in 1848 and also served as Tehseeldar. He enjoys a Jageer of Rs. 2,202, and a life grant of Rupees 400 on retirement.
The Khattars derive their name from Khattar Khan; a resident of Bagh Nilab. They came to the country with Sultan Mehmood Ghaznavi. Khattar Khan had six sons. Surroo Khan’s descendants are called Sirhals, and are found in Pind Sirhal, Bahtar, Jhang & Behlol, .Feroz Khan’s descendants are called Ferozal, They live in Fateh Jang, Dhrek دھریک Wah & Osman Khattar.Jund Khan went to Jundal . Those of Natthian, Thattha, Domel, Basal, are called Jundals. Essa Khan’s descendants are called Eessial; they are found in Choi Gariala, Dher . Billoo Khan’s descendants are in Barotha, and other villages between Bagh Nilab and Attock, and are called Bilwal. Meera Khan’s descendants are in Sarai Khurbooza.
The large tract occupied by Khattars is named Khaaturi کھاٹڑی. It extends from the Indus to Margalla and from Osman Khattar to the Khairi Moorat. There are now two principal families, namely that of Fateh Khan and Sher Khan Dhrek (brothers) and their first Cousins Nawab Khan and Karam Khan. Fateh Khan enjoys 1,720, Rs. in Jagir, Rs. 474 in Chuharoom, and owns 10 villages. Sher Khan enjoys 477 Rs. as Chuharoom. The total Malguzari of the 2 brothers jointly, is Rs. 5,264. Nawab Khan and Karam Khan have a Jagir of 300 Rs. and own 8 villages. Hayat Khan of Wah family was formerly General Nicholson’s Aide-de-camp, and now an Extra Assistant Commissioner. His half brother Buhadur Khan, is a Deputy Inspector General of Police. Both are the most note-worthy persons. In the Fateh Jang family Ata Muhammad Khan, Ghulam Muhammad Khan, and Misri Khan, are the principal men, enjoying Enams and smalln Jagirs. In the Osman Khattar family, Sher Khan is the best man. The total number of Khattars are 7,860 Souls, and the Revenue they pay is Rs 52,205. They own 80 villages. Qazi of Gondal; Qazi Fazal Ahmad is a native gentleman of Khattar descent. He is now an old man of considerable influence, both Cis and Trans Indus. He has a Jageer of Rupees 900, and a Malguzari of Rupees 300 in this District. He also enjoys a Jageer in the Peshawar District.
The Jodrahs are the principal tribe in Pindi Gheb .They are divided into four branches, the Maliks of Pindi Gheb , the family of Dundi , the family of Khunda and that of Kamrial .Malik Amanat was the great grand father of the Maliks. He had the lease of the whole of Pindi Gheb, Hasil Warwal & Tallagang Sikhs gave him this lease for Rupees 6,900. He was succeeded by his son, Malik Nawab, who rebelled against the Sikhs, and died in exile. Malik Ghulam Muhammad succeeded his brother Malik Nawab and made terms with the Sikhs. The Sikhs gave him the lease of Elaqa Seel and Bala-gheb, associating with him Rae Mahomed Khan of Kote. He was allowed a Chuharoom in Elaqa Seel, and Rae Mahomed Khan a fourth share of in Elaqa Gheb. GM was succeeded by his son Malik Allahyar who died shortly after annexation. The present Mulliks, Aulia Khan and Fateh Khan were left minors. The family of Dundee Lungurial owns 11 villages, paying a Revenue of Rupees 3,516. Their principal men are, Anwar Khan, Sarfaraz Khan, Sultan Muhammad and Allahyar Khan.
The Khunda family owns 19 villages paying Rs. 3,985. Their principal men are Malik Ahmed, Malik Sher Jang, Malik Abdullah, and Malik Lal. Enams have been proposed for them instead of Chuharoom. The Kamrial family owns 6 villages, and pay Rs. 3,495. Their headmen are Malik Shera and Malik Mowas . The Jodrahs occupy 67 villages, number altogether 2,747 souls, and pay Rupees 28,048. The family of Khaur are Rajput Chohan and occupy 4 villages west of Kamrial. They pay Rs. 1,775. Their principal men are Malik Mughal, and Malik Itbar, who will both receive Enams.
The principal man of the Gheba tribe is Sirdar Fateh Khan of Kote. He has no male issue, and has adopted his nephew. His Jageers amount to Rs. 4,381. He owns eleven villages. Buddha Khan Mallal has a Jageer of Rs. 500 and Enam of 200. Other principal Gheba men are Mehr Khan of Dhurnal, Lal Khan and Allayar Khan of Majhia, Jehan Khan of Shehr Rae Sadulla, and Tora Khan of Nakodar.All the Ghebas number 1,376 souls, and pay a Revenue of Rupees 18,505. They own 50 whole villages.
In Pindi Gheb and Khatur, the Proprietors take heavy dues from their Cultivators, besides grain. The heaviest are levied by Sardar Fateh Khan of Kote. He takes half of grain, half of bhoosa (straw), Kumeen’s fee at the rate of 1 seer per maund; watchman’s fee half seer per mound, 8 annas per plough as Lumberdar’s allowance. The Revenue for the whole Rawalpindi District is Rupees 7, 29,665. The watchmen get monthly salary of 3 Rs. Chokeedaree tax, is collected as house tax at the rate of seven annas per year.