Rural Life of the Last Century Part 5

Dr. Abdus Salam [email protected]


1. Noor Zaman, Ustaad Abdur Rehman and Allah Jewelia were the last generation of professional potters. They were expert in their job and won many competitions from their relatives of other villages.

Rural Life of the Last Century Part 5

2.The clay free from gravels was collected from the far-flung area. The clay after mixing with water was further mixed many times to bring it into uniform and flexible condition.

3. Thereafter, the clay was placed on Chaak (potter’s wheel – a round and flat stone) that moved clockwise with feet. The different shapes were given to the clay with hands.   Then the pots were shifted from Chaak to ground for final touches with a small instrument called phatti (پھٹی).  After this the pots were put to dry. When the pots were fully dry, those were painted with black and red colors.

4.Finally, the dried pots were put in آوی (potter kiln) in a single lot with the burning dry dung cakes   for many days. There is Urdu idiom.

آوے کا آوا ہی بگڑا ہوا ہے

The whole lot is faulty.

i.۔ سب برتنوں کا خراب ہو جانا

ii.۔ تمام گروپ کا برائی میں یکساں ہونا

5.Pottery Products in Malhuwala were,

– cooking pots (Katvi) کٹوی

– drinking cups(bathal) بٹھل

– Kneading bowl (sehnak.) صحنک

– dishes (Tabkh-) تبا کھ

– water bottle (batakh۔بطک) used by farmers / herdsmen in the fields / jungle. Putting rope through handles they hung the bottle by shoulder.


– Milk churn(chatoori-) چٹور ی

Lamp (Deeva-) ديوا

Pitcher. (Ghara) گھڑا

Pitcher Lid (.Chhooni)- چھونی

KOOZAH: A narrow-necked clay ablution pot with a handle and a spout.

LOTA…Clay bucket of wheel (well)

KARWAH. کروا Metallic ablution pot.

Plastic Lota is a recent development

Pottery of village TAHI (Talagang) تلے نے بھا نڈ ے was a favorite choice of the affording families.


انگریزی کوزہ

● English Koozah”. Russian Teapot

1. in 1937 Nana Ji Qazi Abdul Haq brought a teapot to Malhuwala. People did not know what it was. Our neighbor Nani Mukhan مکھاں asked what this new thing was. She was told “It is English Koozah” (Lota / Ablution-pot)

Russian Teapot
Russian Teapot
Logo Gardener at base of tea pot
Logo Gardener at base of tea pot

2. Khala Ajaib recollected memories of blue tea-set at age of 3 years (1937). Tea was made only when her father Qazi Abdul Haq was around. Tea was taken only in the morning, 

3. That Teapot is still with us at Rawalpindi. It is enameled and gilt porcelain.   Gardner Factory (Moscow) Russia was founded by Francis Gardner in 1766.

 4. Early 20th century Gardner factory porcelain, made for

Central Asia, had the word ‘Gardner (گردنر) ‘written in Persian below the Factory Mark.

5.In 1960s Nani Mukhan often asked the kids, پیشی نی بانگ ہو گئی. We replied, Nani! You are not regular in Prayers. Why you are worried about Azan, She innocently replied..میں  پیشی نی چاہ بناونی and just want to get idea of the time.

See how the time/things change. In 1937 she had no idea of tea / teapot. Now she is religiously observing teatime.


1.Before the age of specialization the same artisan performed these three jobs. Baba Khan  and Ghulam Rasul did wood and iron work at their home placed workshop. They also constructed houses.

To heat up iron they used charcoal انگار۔   collected on marriages. The coal was placed in furnace.

2. Blacksmith bellows لوہار کی دھونکنی مشک had two wooden handles and a leather-sealed chamber by which air was blown out. Bellow was used to stoke iron Smith furnace. The anvil served as a workbench to the blacksmith, where the metal to be forged was placed

3. Blacksmith’s striker was usually the client or healthy Jutt volunteer. Striker swinged the large sledgehammer in heavy forging operations, as directed by the blacksmith. The blacksmith held the hot iron at the anvil (with tongs) in one hand, and indicated where to strike the iron by tapping it with a small hammer in the other hand. The striker then delivered a heavy blow to the indicated spot with a sledgehammer

4.The blacksmith gave the required shape to the iron piece. After proper shaping the hot iron tool was dipped in water and this process was called Paan.

5.The wooden work was making plows, Punjalis (Yoke), doors etc.

Plow with small iron blade was called Hull هل۔.. Plow with large blade was called Machine مشین..and was used for heavy jobs. This so-called Machine was also pulled by oxen.

Rural Life of the Last Century


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